Q. 22. Why there is a need to have alternate communication system during a natural calamity or disaster ?

Ans. 1. In case of any major disaster or emergency situation, it is extremely necessary to have the communication links operational among Government authorities at various levels and the volunteers working in the disaster affected areas to help the affected population.
2. It is necessary to ensure that the critical needs to search and rescue operations, relief and response measures are communicated among the authorities of State Government, local administration, voluntary organizations and the affected population. So, reliable alternate communication links are necessary which ensures the rapid movement of the right resources to the right place at the right time.
3. Sometimes, some severely affected areas get completely disconnected from other parts of the world. So alternative means of communication can connect these areas with the rest of the world.


Q. 23. Which are the two prime communication networks of the Government of India ? Explain their functions.

Ans. The two prime communication networks of the Government of India are –
1. National Informatics Centre (NIC). It is an important Public Sector Organization which provides informatic services for decision support to different government offices at the national, state, district and block levels. Through (information and Communication Technology network known as ‘NICNET’, NIC facilitates informatics services in the field of decentralised planning, improvement in government services and wider transparency of national and local governments. Apart from this, NIC provides support for video conferencing to various states and ministries.
2. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (B.S.N.L.) came into being on October 1, 2000 when the Department of Telecom Services and Department of Telecom Operations were amalgamated together to form a corporation. Today, with a workforce of about 3·5 lakh, BSNL is one of the largest public sector undertakings in the country. Out of six lakh villages in the country, more than five lakh have been provided with telephone facilities. BSNL also started the Cellular Service under the brand of ‘Cell One’ in October, 2002 and within a period of nine months i.e. by June, 2002, its subscriber base touched 3·5 million and it touched about 1,100 cities across the country.

Q. 24. What steps have been taken by the government for promoting Alternative Communication System in India ?

Ans. The government has taken the following steps to promote Alternative Communication System in India –
1. The wide programme to establish Amateur Radio Stations at various places and provide the necessary training for interested Amateur Station Operators.
2. ISRO has been assigned the duty of designing, fabricating and launching of satellites.
3. Press Trust of India (PTI) is implementing a system to provide news and information services at higher speed directly to a wider range of media and other users through the broadcast facilities of INSAT-3C satellite.


Q. 25. What is the importance of satellite based communication system ?

Ans. Satellite based communication system has the following incomparable advantages –
1. Global communication links can be established with very small, portable and easy to install satellite antennas.
2. This mode of communication is most reliable as the radio relay stations, communication satellites are in space and are note vulnerable to any natural disaster.
3. These can help the Rescue and Search teams during natural calamity by providing them proper location of the place and other informations.
4. Satellite based communication system provides other valuable informations related to weather forecasting, natural resources etc.


Q. 26. What do you mean by HAM ? How does it prove useful during disasters ?

Ans. An amateur radio operator is known as Hertz. Armstrong Marconi (HAM). HAM’s operators can set up their own radio stations anywhere, even in their cars. For the purpose, all they require is a radio transmitter, a receiver and an antenna.
HAM is a popular and internationally accepted hobby which has proved useful in a number of ways during disasters as :
1. So, it is claimed that when every other communication system snaps, HAM radios are there during emergencies. HAM is regarded as man’s best friend during disaster.
2. Through the HAM emergency network doctors give medical advice and opinion during disasters.
3. Many societies and volunteer organisations like the Madras Amateur Radio Society (1950) have set up HAM clubs which organise Disaster Management Traffic for relief work.
4. HAM experts claim that one can do a lot of humanitarian work or service through HAM.
5. During major disaster, local police, fire rescue, public and other local radio and telephone systems are overloaded, or do not have the capacity to provide the emergency communications needed to save lives and property. In such a case, HAM radio operators are called into re-establish vital communication links using their own equipment, knowledge skills and training to provide these most valuable services to the public and the government.


Q. 27. Why does telecommunication network get disrupted or jammed in event of a major natural disaster or emergency situation ?

Ans. During any kind of natural calamity, the power-supply gets disrupted, which is required to operate the telephone exchanges. Moreover, during natural calamity, the transmission wires are also damaged. Apart from that, the telecommunication network is also disrupted due to shortage of manpower during the calamity. But even in case, when the public communication network does not disrupt, the communication traffic beyond its capacity leads to congestion of the network.


Q. 28. Write a note on (i) Satellite Communication and (ii) Remote Sensing.

Ans. (i) Satellite Communication means communication through the use of satellites. The process involves sending messages through radio, telephone, radio broadcasts, television broadcasts etc. with the help of satellite stationed in outer space.
(ii) Remote sensing. It is a technique of collecting information about an object from a distance without making any physical contact with the object.