Q. 1. Define garbage.

Ans. Any materials which is discarded by us or which is of no use for us is called garbage. In other words, anything we through is waste or garbage.


Q. 2. What is compositing ?

Ans. The rotting and conversion of some materials into manure is called composting.


Q. 3. What are biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes ?

Ans. The wastes which can be broken down to harmless or non-poisonous substances by the action of micro-organisms are called biodegradable wastes. Biodegradable wastes undergo rotting, e.g., domestic sewage, newspapers and vegetable matter.
On the other hand, the wastes which cannot be broken down to non-poisonous substances easily are called non-biodegradable wastes. These wastes do not undergo rotting or take a very long time for rotting, e.g., polythene bags, plastics, glass, aluminium cans, iron nails and DDT.


Q. 4. What are 3 R’s ? How should we adopt them ? Explain.

Ans. The 3 R’s are :
(a) Reduce the production of wastes.
(b) Reuse the wastes.
(c) Recycle the wastes.
(a) Reduce. (1) We should avoid plastic bags and carry our own cloth bags while going for shopping.
(2) We should avoid using disposable plastic and paper items.
(3) We should take only what we can consume during taking meals.
(4) We should use both sides of a paper.
(5) We should use paper products made from recycled paper.
(b) Reuse. (1) We should reuse plastic items like bags, bottles, cups, etc.
(2) We should reuse empty glass bottles as containers for storing things.
(3) We should reuse you cloth, jute or paper bags instead of using new plastic bags.
(4) We should donate rather instead of throwing away clothing etc. We should donate than, as these items can be reused.
(c) Recycle. (1) Old newspapers can be recycled to make tissue paper and cardboard.
(2) Organic waste (from plant/food sources) can be allowed to rot and manure can be prepared.
(3) Recycling of glass, plastics, aluminium cans and other metals should be encouraged to produce useful products.


Q. 5. What are domestic wastes ?

Ans. Domestic wastes are the wastes produced from our households in our daily activities. Some of these are :
(1) Kitchen wastes— vegetables, fruits and others.
(2) Human excreta.
(3) Garbage— newspapers, rags, etc.
(4) Plastic bags.


Q. 6. Which type of wastes should not used be red worm food ?

Ans. Wastes such as salt containing pickels, oil, vinegar, meat and milk should not be used as redworm food.


Q. 7. What is ‘Papier mache’ ?

Ans. It is a paste made of clay and paper and some rice husk.


Q. 8. What is incineration ?

Ans. The process of burning of wastes in a large furnace is called incineration.


Q. 9. How does a landfill basically work ?

Ans. The basic working of a landfill involves three steps :
(1) Depositng the refuse.
(2) Compating it with buldozers.
(3) Covering the garbage with at least 6 inches deep of soil after each day operation and with the final cover of 2 feet when the area is full.


Q. 10. Fill in the blanks :
(1) Organic matter can be ................. and made into manure.
(2) In ................. earthworms are added to the compost.
(3) ................. is the process of burning wastes in a large furnace.
(4) Organic waste is mostly ................. .
(5) It would be most effective if the segregation of waste is done at ................. .

Ans. (1) Organic matter can be decomposed and made into manure.
(2) In vermicomposting earthworms are added to the compost.
(3) Non-biodegradable is the process of burning wastes in a large furnace.
(4) Organic waste is mostly biodegradable.
(5) It would be most effective if the segregation of waste is done at source.


Q. 11. What is compost ?

Ans. The manure made up by kitchen wastes and garden wastes is called as compost manure. It increases the fertility of the soil.


Q. 12. What is vermicomposting ?

Ans. Method of preparing compost with the help of redworms is called vermicomposting.


Q. 13. Which kind of garbage is not converted into compost by the redworms ?

Ans. Non-biodegradable garbage like polythene bags, broken glass, aluminium wrappers, broken toys, etc. are not converted into compost by the redworms.


Q. 14. What things can you see in waste material ?

Ans. The list of things seen in the waste material are :
(1) spoiled and rotten/rotting fruits and vegetables.
(2) pieces of paper
(3) broken plastics bottles
(4) broken utensils
(5) plastic bags
(6) broken buckets
(7) vegetables and fruit peels.


Q. 15. What would happen if waste material is not collected from the waste material bins for many days ?

Ans. (1) There will be dirty smell all around in surrounding.
(2) The number of mosquitoes will increase.
(3) Many disease will spread.
(4) The air gets polluted.
(5) Unhygienic conditions will prevent.